Caffeine is often included in pre-workout-type supplements in the purified, anhydrous form. In addition to caffeine’s stimulatory effect on the nervous system, it also blocks adenosine receptors, thus, resulting in mental alertness and other cognitive benefits. Caffeine ingestion prior to intense exercise reduces rates of perceived exertion, lowers pain, raises endorphin release, and improves fatigue resistance (Maughan et al., 2018). It has been well-studied and shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in short-term single and repeated bouts of maximal strength and power, intermittent team sports, and endurance exercise (Goldstein et al., 2010; Grgic, Mikulic, Schoenfeld, Bishop, & Pedisic, 2018).
Among trained cyclists, with low (100 milligrams/1.5 grams/kilograms) and moderate (200 milligrams/2.9 milligrams/kilograms) dosages consumed during exercise, time trials were completed significantly faster compared to a trial with a placebo with the moderate dose rendering better improvements than the low dose (Talanian & Spriet, 2016). A systematic review, including 21 studies on endurance time trials ranging from 5 to 150 minutes across a variety of sports, found that 3 to 6 milligrams/kilograms of caffeine consumed before or during exercise improved performance by 3.2% on average with a range between 0.3 to 17.3%. This range implies high variability in individual responses to caffeine and/or varying methods utilized across studies (Ganio, Klau, Casa, Armstrong, & Maresh, 2009). Caffeine is found in our BOOST and HOLESHOT PRE-WORKOUT, ENERGIZED AMINOS and FOCUS FUEL supplements.